Project: Fibs and sorting
This project will help you understand that everything that can be done with recursion can be done with iteration; although the iteration solution may be more difficult to figure out.

Introduction

This project assumes you already have experience with loops, and that you've been doing some practice with your programming outside of this Computer Science course. This project will putting your ability to use recursion through a basic test, and allowing you to compare what you do with recursion with what you do with iteration (loops). This project will also help you understand that everything that can be done with recursion can be done with iteration; although the iteration solution may be more difficult to figure out.

Starting small: Fibonacci

This is an age-old classic example of something that can be solved recursively. The Fibonacci Sequence is a sequence where each number, or term, is the sum of the two terms before it; with the first two terms being 0 and 1. So your sequence is the following:
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, ...

Assignment 1

1. 1.
Write a method #fibs which takes a number and returns that many members of the fibonacci sequence. Use iteration for this solution.
2. 2.
Now write another method #fibs_rec which solves the same problem recursively.
3. 3.
Run both these programs to find the first 5 terms. The result should look something like the example above!
4. 4.
Make a mental note of how long both these programs to solve your problem for 5 terms.
5. 5.
Now run both of these programs to find the first 30 terms.
6. 6.
Is there any noticeable differences in performance between the two programs? Can you figure out why?

Project - Merge Sort

This is a classic algorithm question; and one that lends itself very well to recursion, the topic at hand! It is an algorithm which, as the name suggests, tackles the problem of sorting data sets. This method of sorting arrays may be alien to you at first; but the main thing to keep in mind that this is a Divide and Conquer algorithm. Here is some background viewing to understand what merge sort is:

Background viewing

The first step is to actually understand what the merge sort algorithm is doing:
1. 1.
Check out this introductory video from Harvard's CS50x course.
2. 2.
Check out this more detailed explanation by David J. Malan (watch only until 1:14:00).
3. 3.
Merge Sort -- How it Works part 1 and Merge Sort -- How it Works part II on YouTube give you a more formal look at this problem if you're still unclear.

Assignment 2

1. 1.
Build a method #merge_sort that takes in an array and returns a sorted array, using a recursive merge sort methodology.
2. 2.
Tips:
1. 1.
Think about what the base case is and what behavior is happening again and again and can actually be delegated to someone else (e.g. that same method!).
2. 2.
It may be helpful to check out the background videos again if you don't quite understand what should be going on.
3. 3.
(OPTIONAL) Build a second method #merge_sort_iter that achieves merging behaviour, but iteratively rather than recursively.